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The most important parameters that affect the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanostructures against organic dyes: A Review

Organic dyes are among the main sources of water pollution that cause serious health problems for living organisms. Removing dye pollution from water sources is important because of its high toxicity, so it has attracted the interest of researchers. Heterogeneous photocatalysis based on ZnO is one of the most important methods of pollution treatment. The purpose of this review is to summarize the use of ZnO nanostructure and ZnO modified as photocatalysts. The studied mechanism of dye photocatalytic activity and the most important factors affecting the photocatalytic process are discussed. The major effective parameters associated with the surface and morphology to look upon for the efficient photodegradation of organic pollution are structural and average particle size, surface area, band gap crystalline structure, surface density, and porosity. The photodegradation reactions depend on the state of ionization as well as on the surface charge of the photocatalyst and organic dye because pH will determine the charge of the catalyst according to the medium. On the other hand, the calcination temperature was increased throughout the work to break down the pores, which reduces the surface area of the synthesis photocatalyst. The type of dye has an important influence on the success of the photocatalytic process.