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Review Article

Revolutionizing cancer treatment through nanoengineered photosensitizer formulations for advanced photodynamic therapy



Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an approved minimum-invasive therapeutic approach authorized for the clinical treatment of various types of cancer and antibiotic-resistant microbial disorders. During PDT, a photosensitizing compound known as a photosensitizer (PS) deliberately accumulates in tissues. The PS is activated when exposed to a specific wavelength of visible light, generating reactive oxygen species and causing tumor regression and cell death. PDT has the advantage of being low in systemic toxicity and selective in destroying tumors accessible to light, making it an attractive alternative to other conventional cancer treatments without affecting healthy cells. Despite the challenges of poor aqueous solubility and lack of selectivity associated with PS, PDT has shown promise by employing nanoformulations, enabling selective distribution and concentration in highly localized tumor regions. Centered on the utilization of nanoparticles and nanocarriers in PDT to mitigate treatment drawbacks, the study unveils the effectiveness of nanoformulated photosensitizing agents in tumor destruction. This reveals refined PDT strategies for overcoming limitations and propelling advancements in theranostic applications.

Graphical Abstract



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