skip to main content
Menu
Original Article

Variability in fennel fruit essential oil, fixed oil and their compositions under organic and inorganic fertilizers

Authors

Abstract

Purpose: Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants well known for its essential oil and fruit value. The research on adding vermicompost and sheep manure to the soil is an important area of applied agricultural research in sustainable development. The objective of our study was to compare the fixed and essential oil composition of fennel in organic and conventional farming systems to find out the impact of organic farming system.
Method: In this study, different doses of vermicompost and sheep manures (10, 15, 20 t/ha) and ammonium sulphate (40, 80, 120 kg/ha) were applied by sowing and compared to a control group (no manure). Essential oils were extracted in Neo-clevenger apparatus, fixed oils were extracted in Soxhlet device. These oil components were quantified using Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with a flame ionization detector.
Results: The obtained results showed that the application of 10 t/ha sheep manures not only increased the content of essential oils, but also increased the concentration of the main components, such as camphor and p-anisaldehyde. While the highest fixed oil was achieved in the application after 120 kg/ha ammonium sulphate, the application of 10 t/ha sheep manure had a higher fixed oil content than vermicompost manure. The maximum petroselinic acid content was obtained from vermicompost manure.
Conclusion: The present study clearly indicated that inorganic fertilizer could be replaced by organic manures due to the higher positive impacts on essential oil and essential oil components, fixed oil and fatty acids.

 

Keywords

References

Abdelaziz M, Pokluda R, Abdelwahab M (2007) Influence of compost, microorganisms and NPK fertilizer upon growth, chemical composition and essential oil production of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj 35:86-90. https://doi.org/10.15835/nbha351261

 

Alameldin H, Izadi Darbandi A, Smith SA, Balan V, Jones D, Sticklen M (2017) Production of seed-like storage lipids and increase in oil bodies in corn (Maize; Zea mays L.) vegetative biomass. Ind Crops Prod 108:526-534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.07.021

 

Ansah K O, Antwi C, Osafo ELK, Enning S, Adu-dapaah H (2019) Manure characteristics of small ruminants fed agro byproducts in the guinea savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana. Ghana J Agricul Sci 54(1):67-76. https://doi.org/10.4314/gjas.v54i1.7

 

Anwar M, Patra DD, Chand S, Alpesh K, Naqvı AA, Khanuja SPS (2005) Effect of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on growth, herb and oilyield, nutrient accumulation, and oil quality of French basil. Comm Soil Sci Plant Anal 36:1737-1746. https://doi.org/10.1081/CSS-200062434

 

Bahmani K, Izady-Darbandi A, Akbari A, Warner R (2021) Variation in fatty acid content and composition among Iranian fennel landraces. Authorea 26:2021. https://doi.org/10.22541/au.161435697.70652571/v1

 

Bayrak A (2006) Çeşitli baharat tohumu (rezene, çemenotu) yağlarının sterol ve yağ asidi bileşimi. TC Ankara Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırma Projesi Kesin Raporu, Proje No: 20050745001HPD, Ankara, Türkiye

 

Bayram CA, Büyük G, Kaya A (2021) Effects of farm manure, vermicompost and plant growth regulators on yield and fruit quality in watermelon. KSU J Agric Nat 24(1):64-69. https://doi.org/10.18016/ksutarimdoga.vi.701708

 

Bucagu C, Uftinema B, Umutoniwabo D, Niyitanga F, Karangwa A (2017) Effect of sheep manure and phosphorus fertiliser on productivity of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Northern Rwanda. J Agric Ecol Res Int 12(1):1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/JAERI/2017/32943

 

Camlica M, Yaldiz G (2021) Analyses and evaluation of the main chemical components in different tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) genotypes. Grasas Aceites 72(1):e389-e389. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.0801192

 

Camlica M, Yaldiz G (2024) Comparison of twenty selected fenugreek genotypes grown under irrigated and dryland conditions: Morphology, yield, quality properties and antioxidant activities. Agronomy 14(4):713. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy14040713

 

Çelik M (2023) Determination of nutritional contents of fennel harvest residues. M.Sc. dissertation. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Akdeniz, p. 108, Antalya, Türkiye.

 

Channabasanagowda NKB, Patil BN, Patil JS, Awaknavar BT, Ninganurn, Hunje R (2008) Effect of organic manures on growth, seed yield and quality of wheat. Karnataka J Agric Sci 21(3):366-368.

 

Chatzopoulou PS, Koutsos TV, Katsiotis ST (2006) Study of nitrogen fertilization rate on fennel cultivars for essential oil yield and composition. J Veg Sci 12: 85-93. https://doi.org/10.1300/J484v12n02_08

 

Darzi MT, Ghalavand A, Sefıdkon F, Rejalı F (2009) The effects of mycorrhiza, vermicompost and phosphatic biofertilizer application on quantity and quality of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iranian J Medic Aromatic Plants 24: 396-413.

 

Delfieh M, Modarres-Sanavy SAM, Farhoudi R (2016) Effects of organic, biologic and chemical nitrogen fertilizers on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) yield and essential oil. J Essential Oil Bearing Plants 19(2):339-348. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2016.1149522

 

Ehsanipour A, Razmjoo J, Zeinali H (2012) Effect of nitrogen rates on yield and quality of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) Accessions. Ind Crops Prod 35:121-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2011.06.018

 

Iezzoni AF, Pritts MP (1991) Applications of principal component analysis to horticultural research. HortScience 26(4):334-338. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.26.4.334

 

Izadi-Darbandi A, Akbari A, Bahmani K, Warner R, Ebrahimi M, Ramshini H (2023) Fatty acid profiling and oil content variation among iranian fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. vulgare) landraces. Int J Horticul Sci Technol 10(3):193-202. https://doi.org/10.22059/ijhst.2022.343453.566

 

Kan Y, Kartal M, Aslan S, Yıldırım N (2006) Composition of essential oil of fennel fruits cultivated at different conditions. J Fac Pharm Ankara 35(2):95-101.

 

Kandeel AM, Naglaa SAT, Sadek AA (2002) Effect of biofertilizers on the growth, volatile oil yield and chemical composition of Ocimum basilicum L. plant. Ann Agric Sci Ain Shams Univ 47(1):351-371.

 

Kapoor R, Giri B, Mukerjı KG (2004) Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in Foeniculum vulgare Mill on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer. Bioresour Technol 93:307-311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2003.10.028

 

Karataylı K (2020) Kahramanmaraş ekolojik koşullarında bazı rezene (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce) genotiplerinin tarımsal ve kalite özelliklerinin belirlenmesi. M.Sc. dissertation. Faculty of Agriculture, University of Karmanmaraş Sütçü İmam, p. 66, Kahramanmaraş, Türkiye.

 

Khalesro S, Ghalavand A, Sefidkon F, Asgharzadeh A (2012) The effect of biological and organic inputs on quantity and quality of essential oil and some elements content of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.). Iranian J Medicinal Aromatic Plants 27(4):551-560. https://doi.org/10.22092/ijmapr.2012.4504

Khammassi M, Loupassaki S, Tazarki H, Mezni F, Slama A, Tlili N, Zaouali Y, Mighri H, Jamoussi B, Khaldi A, Mighri H, Jamoussi B, Khaldi A (2018) Variation in essential oil composition and biological activities of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. populations growing widely in Tunisia. J Food Biochem 42: 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12532

 

Malhotra SK, Vashishtha BB (2008) Package of practices for seed spices. National Research Centre on Seed Spices, (ICAR) Ajmer, 93-98.

 

Meena SS, Mehta RS, Malhotra SK, Singh RK, Vashishtha BB (2007) Effect of sheep manure, vermicompost and bio-fertilizers on productivity of dill. Indian J Arid Hortic 2(2):29-30.

 

Mimica-Dukic N, Kujundzic S, Sokovic M, Couladis M (2003) Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Obtained by different distillation conditions. Phytother Res 17:368-371. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.1159

 

Mohamed M, Abdu M (2004) Growth and oil production of fennel: Effect of irrigation and organic fertilization. Bio Agric Hortic 22:31-39. https://doi.org/10.1080/01448765.2004.9754986

 

Mohammadi SA, Prasanna B M (2003) Analysis of genetic diversity in crop plants-salient statistical tools and considerations. Crop Sci 43(4):1235-1248. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2003.1235

 

Moradi R, Moghaddam PR, Mahallati MN, Ne­zhadali A (2011) Effects of organic and biological fertilizers on fruit yield and essential oil of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce). Span J Agric Res 9(2):546-553. https://doi.org/10.5424/sjar/20110902-190-10

 

Mustiga GM, Morrissey J, Stack JC, DuVal A, Royaert S, Jansen J, Bizzotto C, Villela-Dias C, Mei L, Cahoon EB, Seguine E, Marelli JP, Motamayor JC (2019) Identification of climate and genetic factors that control fat content and fatty acid composition of Theobroma cacao L. beans. Front Plant Sci 10:1-20. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01159

 

Mwale M, Gadzirayi CT, Mapiye C, Menanga M, Kuchenga MM, Mupangwa JF (2006) Use of ethno-veterinary medicine for the control if cattle parasites by smallholder farmers in Mutas District, Zimbabwe. South Afr J Educ Sci Technol 1(2):111-117. https://doi.org/10.4314/sajest.v1i2.50388

 

Ozliman S, Yaldiz G, Camlica M, Ozsoy N (2021) Chemical components of essential oilsand biological activities of the aqueous extract of Anethum graveolens L. grown under inorganic and organic conditions. Chem Biol Technol Agric 8:20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40538-021-00224-9

 

Pandey V, Patel A, Patra DD (2015) Amelioration of mineral nutrition, productivity, antioxidant activity and aroma profile in marigold (Tagetes minuta L.) with organic and chemical fertilization. Ind Crops Prod 76:378-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.07.023

 

Pretty J, Bharucha ZP (2014) Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems. Ann Bot 114:1571-1596. https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcu205

 

Rather MA, Dar BA, Sofi SN, Bhat BA, Qurishi MA (2016) Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and safety. Arab J Chem 9:S1574-S1583. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2012.04.011

 

Reiter B, Lechner M, Lorbeer E (1998) The fatty acid profiles (including oleic and cis-vaccenic acid) of different Umbelliferae seed oils. Fett/Lipid 100(11):498-502. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1521-4133

 

Sahni S, Sarma BK, Singh DP, Singh HB, Singh KP (2008) Vermicompost enhances performance of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria in Cicer arietinum rhizosphere against Sclerotium rolfsii. Crop Prot 27:369-376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2007.07.001

 

Şanlı A, Karadoğan T, Baydar H (2008) Determination of essential oil content and composition of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. var. dulce) growing naturally during the growth and development. J Agric Fac 3(2):17-22.

 

Senesi N, Plaza C, Brunetti G, Polo A (2007) A comparative survey of recent results on humic-like fractions in organic amendments and effects on native soil humic substances. Soil Biol Biochem 39(6):1244-1262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.12.002

 

Shahat AA, Ibrahim AY, Hendawy SF, Omer EA, Hammouda FM, AbdelRahman FH, Saleh MA (2011) Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from organically cultivated fennel cultivars. Molecules 16:1366-1377. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules16021366

 

Vadiraj BA, Siddagangaiah Potty SN (1998) Response of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) cultivars to graded levels of vermicomposts. J Spice Arom Crops JOSAC 7(2):141-143.

 

Valiki SRH, Ghanbari S, Golmohammadzadeh S, Tat OF (2015) The effect of vermicompost and NPK fertilizer on yield, growth parameters and essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare). Int J Life Sci 9(4):38-43. https://doi.org/10.3126/ijls.v9i4.12673

 

Vidrih R, Filip S, Hribar J (2009) Content of higher fatty acids in green vegetables. Czech J Food Sci 27:125-129. https://doi.org/10.17221/621-CJFS

 

Yaldiz  G, Camlica M (2019) Variation in the fruit phytochemical and mineral composition, and phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the fruit extracts of different fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.) genotypes. Ind Crops Prod 142:111852. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.111852

 

Yaldiz G, Camlica M (2022) Essential oils content, composition and antioxidant activity of selected basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) genotypes. S Afr J Bot 151(Part-A):675-694. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2022.10.045

 

Yaldiz G, Camlica M (2023) Assessing the effect of various doses of organic manures on herbage yield, essential oil, and compositions of sage grown under climate chamber and field conditions. Org Agr 13:377-397. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13165-023-00434-5

 

Younesian A, Taheri S, Moghaddam PR (2013) The effect of organic and biological fertilizers on essential oil content of (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) (Sweet Fennel). Intl J Agri Crop Sci 5(18):2141.

 

Zhang Y, Yang S, Fu M, Cai J, Zhang Y, Wang R, Xu Z, Bai Y, Jiang Y (2015) Sheep manure application increases soil exchangeable base cations in a semi-arid steppe of Inner Mongolia. J Arid Land 7:361-369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-015-0004-5