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Original Article

Variability in fennel fruit essential oil, fixed oil and their compositions under organic and inorganic fertilizers



Purpose: Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants well known for its essential oil and fruit value. The research on adding vermicompost and sheep manure to the soil is an important area of applied agricultural research in sustainable development. The objective of our study was to compare the fixed and essential oil composition of fennel in organic and conventional farming systems to find out the impact of organic farming system.
Method: In this study, different doses of vermicompost and sheep manures (10, 15, 20 t/ha) and ammonium sulphate (40, 80, 120 kg/ha) were applied by sowing and compared to a control group (no manure). Essential oils were extracted in Neo-clevenger apparatus, fixed oils were extracted in Soxhlet device. These oil components were quantified using Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with a flame ionization detector.
Results: The obtained results showed that the application of 10 t/ha sheep manures not only increased the content of essential oils, but also increased the concentration of the main components, such as camphor and p-anisaldehyde. While the highest fixed oil was achieved in the application after 120 kg/ha ammonium sulphate, the application of 10 t/ha sheep manure had a higher fixed oil content than vermicompost manure. The maximum petroselinic acid content was obtained from vermicompost manure.
Conclusion: The present study clearly indicated that inorganic fertilizer could be replaced by organic manures due to the higher positive impacts on essential oil and essential oil components, fixed oil and fatty acids.




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