Zoning and modeling of energy consumption in human settlements and explaining the effective components in the design of green buildings (Case study: Mashhad)
The purpose of this study is to achieve the effective components and criteria in the design of green residential settlements with an environmental protection approach in Mashhad. The research method is applied and in terms of implementation is descriptive-analytical. Using the TM sensor and LANDSAT satellite, satellite images of the study area were prepared and modeled by superimposing data related to energy consumption through GIS tools and Arcview software to final synthesis and mapping. Then, using the opinions of experts to extract and prioritize the appropriate components and criteria from each of the mentioned systems. Data were analyzed by structural equation method with least squares approach and Smart – PLS2 software was used for final analysis. Then, after explaining the components and criteria, according to the available data, the optimal limit (10% -20%) for 10 components was proposed as a scenario. Then modeling was done through Design Builder software. The results showed that a total of 4 categories of macro variables have been identified as the main components affecting energy consumption, which are: “management”, “environmental performance”, “economic performance” and “social performance” variables, all of which have divergent validity. Also, 11 topics and 61 criteria were extracted and explained as components for assessing the sustainability of residential buildings. Finally, it was found that with the implementation of energy optimization strategies, the heating system will be reduced by 36%, the cooling system energy by 41% and the total cooling and heating energy by 38% compared to the base state.