Estimation of lattice strain in ZnO nanoparticles: X-ray peak profile analysis
AbstractZnO nanoparticles were synthesized from chitosan and zinc chloride by a precipitation method. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction peak profile analysis, Scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and Photoluminescence. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that the sample was crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite phase. We have investigated the crystallite development in ZnO nanoparticles by X-ray peak profile analysis. The Williamson–Hall analysis and size–strain plot were used to study the individual contributions of crystallite sizes and lattice strain ϵ on the peak broadening of ZnO nanoparticles. The parameters including strain, stress and energy density value were calculated for all the reflection peaks of X-ray diffraction corresponding to wurtzite hexagonal phase of ZnO lying in the range 20°–80° using the modified form of Williamson–Hall plots and size–strain plot. The results showed that the crystallite size estimated from Scherrer’s formula, Williamson–Hall plots and size–strain plot, and the particle size estimated from Transmission electron microscopy analysis are very much inter-correlated. Both methods, the X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy, provide less deviation between crystallite size and particle size in the present case.