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Blockchain-Based Internet of Vehicles in Green Smart City: Applications and Challenges and Solutions



The ever-increasing growth of the population and their concentration in cities has destructive and often catastrophic effects on natural habitats and human life and exposes cities to painful crises, including environmental and human destruction, which has caused humans to turn to technologies emerging to reduce environmental risks. Blockchain is a new and revolutionary technology in the world’s management systems. The blockchain network allows individuals, governments, and organizations to implement any transaction securely on this network. With the Internet of Things expansion and the emergence of the Internet of Vehicles, green smart cities, and integration of these technologies with the blockchain network, human life quality has increased. However, new technical and environmental challenges have emerged by combining IoV applications with the blockchain network in expanding green smart cities. This article examines the concepts and advantages of the blockchain network, and then the applications of IoV in green smart cities are analyzed. Then the technical and environmental challenges of IoV are discussed, and finally, solutions for the environmental and technical challenges are presented.