A solution at the doorsteps: Improved biofertilizer enhances soil fertility and yield of Chili ( Capsicum an-nuumL.) in Bhutan
Purpose Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of locally prepared biofertilizers (Jholmal 1 and Jholmal 2) on soil properties and chili yield (Capsicum annuum L.).
Method The experimental site was in west-central Bhutan. The experiments were Randomized Complete Block Designs (RCBD) consisting of three treatments (cattle dung/ urine: Jholmal 1, cattle urine: Jholmal 2, and Control), and each treatment was replicated four times. The individual plot size of each treatment was 1 m × 3 m in total the experiment occupied a total area of 36 m2. The effects of biofertilizers on soil properties and chili yield were compared before and after application.
Results Overall soil pH was within the suitable range (pH 6-7) for chili cultivation, although soil pH declined significantly in Jhomal 2 and control treatments. The soil C:N ratio increased significantly in all plots after application. Plots receiving Jholmal 2 showed the highest increase in the C:N ratio (2.30%; p<0.01) after the application. Available soil P increased after the application and was recorded highest (21.02 mg/kg; p<0.05) in plots amended with Jholmal 1. Exchangeable K declined significantly in all treatments after the application and the decline was highest (56.00 mg/kg; p<0.05) in the plots amended with Jholmal 1. The plots amended with Jholmal 1 also gave the highest chili yield in both experiments (≈13 t/ha in experiment I and ≈15 t/ha in experiment II).
Conclusion Jholmal 1 has better effects on soil fertility and chili yield and could be a prospective organic biofertilizer to use in organic farms in Bhutan.
- The effects of two different locally prepared biofertilizers (Jholmal 1 and Jholmal 2) were compared.
- Soil pH declined significantly in Jhomal 2 treatment and the control.
- Plots treated with Jholmal 2 increased C:N ratio.
- Available soil P increased and it was higher in the plots treated with Jholmal 1.
- The plots treated with Jholmal 1 gave the highest chili yield.